The benefits of early diagnosis of various diseases in humans, including cancer, is undeniable. Because the sooner the disease is detected, the easier it is completely healed. However, today often confuse the notion of screening and early diagnosis, putting between them a sign of equality, but this is different concepts. Because not all types of malignant tumors can be detected early in their development. As to why the screening does not recognize all types of cancer, what are the usual diagnostic methods cannot be attributed to the methods of screening.
What are the screening and early diagnosis of cancer?
The screening is a massive survey of practically healthy people without symptoms (symptoms) of the tumor in order to maximize the early detection of cancer at the initial stage or precancer. Screening method should be cheap, accurate and accessible for a wide of a grasp of the population. The early diagnosis of cancer is the detection of tumors at a reception at the doctor at an early stage if the initial clinical symptoms of the disease.
All five options.
To date, the proven effective screening there are only 4 of certain types of cancer. This is the cancer of the colon and rectum (colorectal cancer), breast cancer, cervical cancer and part of lung cancer (for smokers with experience). In each of these cases, you can highlight the risk group – such people help to screen more than harm. And in this case, the use of search in the asymptomatic and early stages will be higher. Early Stages of cervical cancer screening to identify during the inspection of the gynecologist in a clinic or women’s consultation. For this doctor takes two analysis – Pap smear, cervical, uterine and cervical canal on the Pap test for cytological studies, as well as a test for detection of oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses.
The frequency of such procedures is as follows: Pap smear, cervical cancer 1 times in 3 years, women aged 21-29 years. At the age of 30-65 years of age to the need to smear to test for the identification of oncogenic human papillomavirus. Such an approach can reduce mortality from cervical cancer by 70%.
For the screening of breast cancer is held regularly mammography
Most of the physicians of the world advise to start regular hardware research with 40 years, the frequency of inspections should be at least 1 times a year. It is necessary to remember that ultrasound or doctor to the methods of screening does not apply. Such an approach can reduce mortality from breast cancer by 30%. In identifying high risk of hereditary breast cancer, with the presence of mutations in oncogenes ВRCA-1, The ВRCA-2 or snack-2, may be assigned MRI of the mammary glands with intravenous contrast. In screening for colorectal cancer with 50 years recommended colonoscopy (endoscopic intraluminal exam of the colon), every 5 to 10 years and the surrender of the analysis of fecal hidden blood.
The second examination must be performed with intervals of 1 times a year
If the hidden blood in the stool will be discovered, you must be sure to undergo colonoscopy. This simple algorithm can help reduce mortality from this type of cancer by 15%. The screening of lung cancer occurs when the low dose computed tomography of the thorax. The screening recommends that held people aged 55-74 years, which have the risk of lung cancer is above average. Usually, at risk include inveterate smokers with the experience of smoking 30 years (1 pack of cigarettes a day for 30 years). Fluorography or Radiography Chest screening methods in any country in the world are not! Melanoma skin – one of the aggressive and rapidly developing forms of malignant tumors. On the one hand, it would seem that this tumor of the outer containment and therefore should not have problems with its detection since all the moles and pigment spots on the mind and visible during inspection. On the other hand, its often you can and not notice. The Group Risk for melanoma of the skin may include people with light skin, blondes and to appear with white-gray-blue and green eyes, with lots of moles and FRECKLES on the skin, as well as those who once received a sunburn of the skin, especially in children and young adults, and those whose blood relatives of melanoma were sick.
The focus in the early detection of melanoma occupies the self-examination
Very carefully study all of its areas of the body, including the skin of the back, the back surface of the legs and head, using a mirror or drawing to the inspection of the relatives. Melanoma after a careful inspection can be found at an early stage, which reduces the mortality rate on 63%. The pre-it is worth to explore photos of early melanoma on the internet at special medical portals. Visual inspection of the moles should take into account 5 factors: the asymmetry of the pigmented education, unevenness of its borders, uneven coloring (different colors), the diameter more than 6 mm, changing education in the size, shape, and color. The dermatologist or Oncodermatologist will conduct a visual inspection, performs dermatoscopy all suspicious entities (study using an optical device, which increases the image of moles in 10 or more times). This increases the probability to detect the early form of melanoma by up to 90%. Also, by reading, you can take a biopsy for the morphological studies.
The family hereditary factor
Early diagnostics need to practice and select appropriate methods primarily to those in the family, blood relatives of the first and second line, i.e., mothers and fathers, brothers and sisters, grandparents, there have been cases of oncological diseases. The plan of action is to discuss with the geneticist (pass the blood on the mutation of oncogenes) and the oncologist (pick up the individual plan surveys), without waiting for the appearance of the first symptoms of the tumor.
The controversial screening
Today, men are often attributed to the need to undergo screening for prostate cancer – his attempt to determine the surrender of analysis on the dog. The study on the matter indicates that the effectiveness of this method is actually small and to reduce mortality from this cancer. Overdiagnosis on this issue is not always beneficial. Because the identification of tumors, which very likely would not manifest clinically, not worth the risk potential in vain biopsy (when examined benign education) and the subsequent complex treatment – Operations, radiation therapy, etc. That is why most professionals today recommend discussing with men between the ages of 50 and 70 years of age the possibility of screening, taking into account all the individual risks. If the risks you are not covered, and the diagnosis was not you, call it screening for cancer is not completely correct.